Senin, 26 Januari 2015

Structure of Preposition

Name           : Cipto Prasetio Sutikno
Student-ID    : 18611407
Class            : 4SA05
Subject         : Computer-aided English Learning

STRUCTURE OF PREPOSITION
A preposition is used to connect a noun structure to others( e.g. pronoun) in a sentence. In other words, preposition is like a bridge which is used to connect between one place to other. So, Noun or pronoun is very important for preposition in order that preposition can be used. This automatically states that without nouns or pronoun, preposition will be nothing!.
According to the usage in cases of sentences, preposition has 6 structures, they are;
1.      In a structure of a noun
e.g. I come from Indonesia.
2.      In a structure of a pronoun
e.g. He gave it to me
Note: Pronoun here may be an objective pronoun and possession
For examples:
I need you. (Objective pronoun)
She is one of friends of mine (Possession)
3.      In a Gerundial Phrases
e.g. I object to telling the information to him.
4.      In a noun clause
e.g. I object to telling the information to who stole my money.
5.      In a part of verb (But, it has full meaning verb)
e.g. I get up early every morning.

note: /get up/ and others, like; keep on, carry out, get on, go up, give up, etc, is also called a phrasal verb. Why phrase? It is because the verb forms a phrase by placing a preposition behind it and create a new and full meaning which differs from the original verb.
For example:
get = to gain something
get up = e.g. get up from lying down, get up from bed or get up from failure.

6.      In a part of verb (But, the preposition describes something else, like a direction or a place)
e.g. When I look into your eyes, there's .......(/into/ denotes something exist inside).

As you know that Preposition is usually placed before its noun object. But sometimes, preposition can be placed in the end of the sentence with or without a noun beside it.
For examples:
That's the house where I live in. (With a full verb /live/)
This sentence dontes a place which described by /that's the house/.
What's on tonight?
This sentence has preposition which stands alone without others, like a verb or noun or pronoun. However, The preposition /on/ has a function as an adverb to indicate that something is on or off, say, a film. In other cases, /on/, here, describes the hit or rank, e.g. The company reaches its highest target tonight while others not.

FORM OF PREPOSITION
Preposition has three forms in its usage;
1)simple preposition, preposition has single part, e.g. of, on, by, near, off, in, at, etc.
2)two parts of preposition, preposition which is created from the combination of words and a certain particle.
e.g. instead of, because of, so that, as for, apart from, etc
3)three parts of preposition, preposition has three parts in use, e.g. by means of, in regard to, etc.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
When preposition is combined to other words and has a full meaning, it is called "Prepositional phrase".
According to its function, prepositional phrase has functions, as;
1.Adverbial, as in, they stood under the tree. (denotes a certain place ---> Adverb of place)
2.Adjectival, prepositional phrase which modifies or give some information to a noun.
  e.g. I have got to attend the meeting at seven o'clock.
3.Nominal, preposition which is placed after a full verb. This is usually called "Prepositional object". Object here denotes a place where the prepositional phrase is placed, i.e., after a full verb.
Note that Adverb can be modified. see also modifying adverb clause.
For examples:
I am waiting for her.
Notice that the preposition /for/ is placed after the verb /waiting/.
Preposition, when it has its own building, as in prepositional phrase, it has a position in sentences.
a)     initial, placed at the beginning of a sentence.
For example:
For the sake of you, I'll do everything.
b)     middle, placed in the middle of a sentence which uses commas in its left and right sides.
For example:
If you wish, for the sake of you, I'll do everything.
c)     final, placed in the end of the sentence.
For example:
I'll do everything for the sake of you.
When we would like to show the details, we can placed one prepositional phrase to others at the same time.

For example:
I'll attend the meeting in Bali at 8.00 tonight


EXERCISE         :
STRUCTURE PREPOSITION
Analyze this article below about the structure preposition!

Some people live for making presentations; others consider it their worse nightmare.  It could be five people in a boardroom or 500 in the audience, but if you are the presenter the spotlight is on you. You'll either be the hero or the goat.
No need to panic. Here are five ways to help make your presentation astounding and enjoy the opportunity to bask in the limelight.
1. Give it Focus
No one is impressed by a presentation that rambles. Rambling happens when the speaker is both self-indulgent and unorganized. Your purpose and prose must be specifically directed to interests of your listeners or they will mentally shut you down. Even if you hit upon a topic of interest, you will lose them quickly if they can't follow the logic of your ideas. Outline the structure of your presentation in a way that people can follow easily. Research your audience to make sure the topic is truly of interest. Promoting the benefits of beef at a vegetarian conference will likely empty your venue no matter how strong your passion for steak.
2. Tell Compelling Stories
There must be a reason you are presenting to these people. Most likely you want them to take action of some kind. Maybe you want them to write you a check, get involved in an activity, or to make something happen in their own lives. They won't likely take action just because you tell them to do so. You need to connect with them emotionally and inspire them to change behavior. Stories do more for emotional connection than any other speech technique. The more personal and authentic, the more powerful the response you'll receive. Learn how to construct stories that excite, motivate and compel people to action. Most importantly, make sure your stories have humor and Aha! moments to make them memorable.
3. Give an Entertaining Performance
Not every presenter has to be an actor or comedian, but no one wants to listen to someone drone on in dull monotone. There are powerful dynamics in movement and vocal inflections that will help your listeners feel your passion and energy.  Give them an awesome experience. Take the time to create a script and memorize it so you own the material. You don't have to know it word for word but you should be able to clearly articulate the key points without your notes. Then you need to rehearse... a lot. As painful as it might be, watch yourself on video and work to remove Uhhs,Umms and physical tics so you appear polished and comfortable. Find a friend with a performance background to coach you so your diction is clear, you project emotion, and you connect with your eyes. Make your audience knows they are worth your effort.
4. Use Media Only to Enhance
PowerPoint, visuals and video are powerful presentation tools when used correctly. But they can be disastrous distractions when misused. They should never replace you as the provider of expertise. Don't ever let your audience feel they would have been better off if you had just emailed them the deck. Keep your PowerPoint to a few words and never read from the screen in the presentation. Ask yourself if a slide or video is truly necessary before adding anything. Visuals are good for making an emotional connection only if they are relevant and required, otherwise best to just leave the projector off and focus more on your storytelling and performance skills.
5. Create a Worthy Leave-Behind
So you just delivered the best presentation ever. Now your audience heads off to the next speaker, to lunch or back to their desks.  People are busy and no matter how much you impressed them they will turn their attentions elsewhere. Give them something to remember you by. Professional speakers will give them a book or at least a couple of chapters. It might be as simple as a small flyer or premium item. Whatever it is, make sure it's relevant to your compelling story and reminds them of the action they should take. Be clever and appropriate so people will appreciate your thoughtfulness as well as your ideas.
http://www.inc.com/kevin-daum/5-tips-for-giving-really-amazing-presentations.html

Structure of preposition
1.   In a structure noun
·     It could be five people in a boardroom or 500 in the audience.
From the sentence above, there have structure of preposition. The structure is in form of a noun. In include as preposition, after in is followed by noun (boardroom and audience). In a boardroom also can denote as a place.
·     Here are five ways to help make your presentation astounding and enjoy the opportunity to bask in the limelight.
That sentence above has also structure preposition of a noun. The preposition is in followed by noun (limelight).

·     No one is impressed by a presentation that rambles.
By a presentation has a structure of a noun. The preposition is by. It is followed by noun (presentation).

2.   In a structure of a pronoun
·     if you are the presenter the spotlight is on you.
A clause above has a structure of preposition. A structure preposition of a pronoun. On includes as a preposition, after on is followed by pronoun (you).

3.   In a structure of gerundial phrase
·     Some people live for making presentations; others consider it their worse nightmare. 
For denotes a preposition. Preposition is usually followed by verb ing (making) or as gerund like the sentence above.

4.   In a part of verb (phrasal verb)
·        Visuals are good for making an emotional connection only if they are relevant and required, otherwise best to just leave the projector off and focus more on your storytelling and performance skills.
·        Even if you hit upon a topic of interest, you will lose them quickly if they can't follow the logic of your ideas.
·        Now your audience heads off to the next speaker, to lunch or back to their desks
Those sentence in particular show a structure a preposition in form of phrasal verb such leave off, heads off and hit upon. Those verbs are followed by prepositions off and upon.

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