Jumat, 24 Oktober 2014

Direct and Indirect Speech

Student-ID     : 18611407
Class             : 4SA05
Subject          : Computer-aided Learning English

The writer tries to analyze direct and indirect speech from the article below. The article below has become a material or object which will to be analyze, the writer found some sentences which include in direct and indirect speech. The article retrieved on:

My baby will be mixed race. So why did I automatically think of him as 'black'?

My 87-year-old grandmother has a very specific way of saying the wordblack: she drags out the a and makes the k extra hard for an effect that drowns the c. “Blaaaak” out of my grandmother’s mouth is an admonishment, not a color. “Blaaaak” out of my grandmother’s mouth travels a step beyond being a pejorative to having the hair-raising resonance of a word that damns as well as describes damnation itself.
“Blaaaak” out of my grandmother’s mouth is a curse.
But the freckled, fair-skinned black woman who helped raise me doesn’t use “Blaaaak” to refer to people’s skin tones. Though such attitudes are often mistaken for a bias against darker skinned people of our race, the assumed colorism of older African Americans is more often a reaction to the humiliating and degrading representation of dark skin in images used to depict and reinforce black people’s sub-human status in the late 19th and first half of the 20th century.
But it wasn’t until a month ago, and seven months pregnant, that her own granddaughter came to understand that distinction.
My mother and I had gone to pick out a cake design for my baby shower, and the one I liked had a pile of leaves in the middle where a plastic portrait of a lily white baby’s face blossomed. I asked if they had a black baby face, and my mother even asked if they had a “tan” baby (since my husband is white and our child will be biracial), but the sales woman told me that their babies only came in black and white. So I chose another design – one that included a black baby.
I didn’t ponder this particular bakery’s limited selection, the persistence of that fictional racial dichotomy, or even kick myself for not taking our business elsewhere. That is, I didn’t question it until later in the day when my grandmother asked about the cake and I explained that it would have a black baby.
“Did you choose a Sambo-blaaaak baby?” she asked. The plastic figurine’s dark blue-black skin and light pink lips flashed in my mind. “Well, kind of,” I answered.
My grandmother lost it:
“Are you crazy? Oh, you must be! Do you think I’m going to eat a cake with a creature from the blaaaak lagoon on it?! Didn’t they have brown skinned babies? Didn’t they have Puerto Rican babies? Didn’t they have anything other than Sambo-blaaaak babies?”
The word “sambo”, and the caricature attached to it, has a multinational history – from its use in Latin American Spanish to refer to a person of Native American and African heritage, to the overseer in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, to the children’s book The Story of Little Black Sambo in which a South Indian boy tricks a gang of hungry tigers. But my grandmother wasn’t thinking of India or how the geography of the slave trade shaped racial terms. For her, “Sambo” recalls the blubber-lipped, blue-black caricatures of African American children known aspiccaninnies, perched on dilapidated porches, half-clothed and dusty, and as happy in squalor and ignorance as they can be.
Depictions of black people, like Sambo, the piccaninny and many others, were manufactured and sold to the public – often to sell consumer products – as foils for whiteness. The scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr even calls what he terms “the everyday racism of American popular culture “Sambo Art”. Everything these imaginary “mascots” of blackness were scripted to be – slow-witted, indolent, greedy, grotesque – white people and white children were supposedly not.
So when I chose a black baby for the cake, my grandmother justifiably wondered who the hell I thought I was and who exactly I was setting up my child to be. The truth is my grandmother’s response prompted me to ask myself these same questions. And the answers surprised me.
In one regard, my ideas about race are more retro than my grandmother’s. I picked a black baby to represent my mixed-race unborn child because of my automatic adherence to the “one-drop rule” – meaning that, because I am black, my child will be too, as was the case during slavery and Jim Crow. But my grandmother’s irate questions about why the bakery didn’t have babies of many colors acknowledged the truth that runs in all of our veins: race is a spectrum, not dichotomy.
According to the 2010 Census, the multiracial American population grew by 32% since 2000. And though 2000 was the first year people could check multiple race boxes on the census, between 2000 and 2010 the number of Americans who identify as both black and white increased 134% to 1.8m. The 2010 Census also reported that racial and ethnic minorities made up nearly half of the under-5 age group and were soon going to be the majority.
The biracial baby boy I am carrying will be a part of this multiracial wave entering America’s schools and more broadly American life. Yet, despite my child’s mixed-race heritage, I found it unthinkable to put a white figurine on my baby shower cake. But just as “blackness” has come to mean something different over the generations since my grandmother was young, so whiteness will also come to be less definitive – and ultimately less proscribed, given the census numbers and the heterogenous reality they reflect.
In the end, despite the fact that I am not having twins, I chose one black baby and one white baby to preside over my cake. Just as, with each coming decade, more people will check more than one box to describe their own racial identity – including quite possibly my child – I decided it was more emotionally accurate to identify my baby as both, rather than one or the other.

A.   Statement

1.    Direct Speech
The sales woman told, “The babies only come in black and white.”

Indirect Speech
The sales woman told me that their babies only came in black and white.
The sentence above includes direct speech in term of the direct speech statement. It expresses a directly statement, so it must be changed into the form of statement which is also currently convert it to Indirect Speech. If the tense in direct speech is simple present tense, so in indirect speech has to simple past.

2.    Direct Speech
I explained, “I will have a black baby.”

Indirect Speech
I explained that I would have a black baby.
Those sentence above include direct and indirect speech in term of the direct and indirect speech statement because it has no question mark and express a complete thought. Then direct speech is used when we quote a speaker’s word and we use quotation mark. Besides, it has common verb that introduce quotation like “explain”.
B.   Question

1.    Direct Speech
“Did you choose a Sambo-blaaaak baby?” she asked.

Indirect Speech
She want to know if I had chosen a Sambo-blaaaak baby.

Those sentences include direct and indirect speech in type of the direct and indirect speech question or interrogative. If a direct speech changes into indirect speech, the quotation mark doesn’t use again. Interrogative sentence in direct speech changes become question mark(?) doesn’t use again. Moreover, when the question is yes/no question, it has to use if or whether. Then the tense in indirect speech has to be changed. If the tense in direct speech is simple past tense, so it has to change into past perfect in indirect speech.

2.    Direct Speech
“Didn’t they have brown skinned babies?” my grandmother asked.

Indirect Speech
My grandmother asked whether they had had brown skinned babies.

The sentences above include direct and indirect speech too. In direct speech has question mark (?). therefore, it has to be deleted and do not use again in indirect speech. Then, the tense in indirect speech become past perfect because the tense in direct speech is past tense.

C.   Imperative

1.    Direct Speech
He said, “Lie down on the bed.”
Indirect Speech
He told me to lie down on the bed.
To change into indirect speech command, usually used the words will, order, beg, ask, etc and advise the reporting verb followed by to infinitive and object like the sentence above.

2.    Direct Speech
He said, “Remember to mail the letter.”

Indirect Speech
He reminded me to post the letter.

 An imperative to change into indirect speech used the verb ask, remind, tell, advise and others followed by to infinitive. The tense doesn’t need to change.


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